Effects of Environmental Regulation and Urban Encroachment on California’s Dairy Structure

Environmental regulatory compliance costs are often cited as a factor in dairy location decisions, but few studies estimate the impacts of regulation in this sector. This article uses California dairy regulations to examine the pollution haven hypothesis in agriculture. Dairy industry regulation has varied regionally within the state, with the more strictly regulated Southern California region losing production and the more environmentally lenient Central Valley gaining production. Results show that even after controlling for population density and property values, regulation had significant negative effects on dairying in Southern California.
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Sneeringer, Stacy E., Effects of Environmental Regulation and Urban Encroachment on California’s Dairy Structure, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Volume 36, Issue 3, December 2011, Pages 590–614

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