Gould, Brian W.

By: Schmit, Todd M.; Dong, Diansheng; Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.
A two-step model with sample selection is applied to panel data of U.S. households to estimate at-home demand for fluid milk and cheese, incorporating advertising expenditures. The model consistently accounts for sample-selection bias, unobserved household heterogeneity, and temporal correlation. Generic advertising programs for fluid milk and cheese were effective at increasing conditional purchase quantities, with very little effect on the probability of purchase. In contrast to aggregate studies, the long-run generic advertising elasticities for cheese were larger than for those of fluid milk. Advertising response varied considerably across sub-product classes, while branded advertising expenditures were largely insignificant.
By: Gould, Brian W.; Dong, Diansheng
Increased availability of scanner-based panel data has enabled researchers to better understand nondurable commodity purchase dynamics. In this study, we focus on one component of the purchase process--when to buy. The relationship between the discrete purchase decision and a set of household and purchase characteristics is quantified using a simulated maximum-likelihood procedure. Given the longitudinal nature of our data, unobserved heterogeneity is addressed by adopting an auto-correlated error structure. Our empirical application is household purchases of cheese. We find evidence of significant persistent unobservable household heterogeneity, which is not eliminated by the inclusion of lagged exogenous variables.
By: Gould, Brian W.
U.S. fluid milk consumption has changed dramatically since the early 1970s. Whole milk accounted for over 81% of commercial fluid milk disappearance in 1970. By 1993, this percentage was less than 39%. A three-equation fluid milk demand system is estimated for fluid milks that vary by fat content. The household panel data set used includes over 4,300 households that recorded fluid milk purchased for at-home consumption over a 12-month period. Given that many of these households did not consume one or more of the three milk types, the econometric model explicitly incorporates the censored nature of these commodity demands. Own- and cross-price and substitution estimated along with effects of household demographic characteristics.
By: Gould, Brian W.; Lin, Huei Chin
An endogenous switching regression model is used to examine how meal planner health knowledge affects dietary fat intake. Ethnicity, income, meal planner age, being on a low-fat diet, and other health awareness behaviors had significant effects on health knowledge. After controlling for differences in household and meal planner characteristics, intake of total and saturated fat was found to depend on health knowledge status.