Mishra, Ashok K.

January, 2023

By: Miller, Cristina D. M.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Villacis, Alexis H.
This study investigates the impact of health insurance coverage and participation in government counter-cyclical, conservation, and risk management programs on off-farm labor allocation decisions among US farm-operator households. Using household-level data, this study employs a simultaneous probit estimation method to estimate the empirical model. Results show that US farm-operator households with employer-sponsored health insurance coverage are also 14% more likely to work off farm. Second, farm familiesÕ off-farm work is associated with a 4% increase in health insurance coverage. Counter-cyclical, conservation, risk management payments have a negative and significant effect on US farm-operator householdsÕ off-farm work decisions.

September, 2022

By: Khanal, Aditya R. ; Mishra, Ashok K. ; Lien, Gudbrand
Using primary survey data of onion growers in India, this study tests the relationship between and predictability of risk attitude measures on farmersÕ risk management decisions. We find that farmers with high risk aversion are more likely to adopt farm diversification strategies, good agricultural practices, government-recommended seed varieties, and preventive measures against diseases and pests than farmers with low risk aversion. The likelihood of farmers adopting good agricultural practices decreases with perceived higher risks of low-quality production, a higher risk of losing crops due to weather, and insects and pests.

January, 2022

By: Mishra, Ashok K. ; Mayorga, Joaquin ; Kumar, Anjani
We use a stochastic frontier approach corrected for self-selection to separate technology and managerial gaps between the treatment and control groups of smallholders in baby corn production in India. We also assess the impact of contract farming on output prices, profitability, and resource usage. We find that technical efficiency is consistently higher among contract farmers than among independent farmers and that significant technology and managerial gaps exist between contracted and independent growers. Ultimately, contract farming intervention benefits the livelihood of smallholders, increases efficiency, and reduces environmental degradation without compromising yield.

September, 2020

By: Khanal, Aditya R. ; Mishra, Ashok K. ; Mayorga, Joaquin ; Hirsch, Stefan
This study examines the impact of the choice of contract farming (CF) conditions on the productivity and profitability of ginger growers. Using farm-level data from Nepal and the selectivity-corrected multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR) method, we found that ginger growers increased yields by 16%, 19%, and 15% by participating in CF with input conditions (IC), with output conditions (OC), and with input and output conditions (BC), respectively. Ginger growers also increased profits by participating in CF. Price difference in spot and contract markets, distance to market and transportation facilities, and farm location are important factors affecting participation in any form of CF.

January, 2020

By: Kumar, Anjani; Mishra, Ashok K.; Sonkar, Vinay K.; Saroj, Sunil
We evaluate the impact of access to credit on rural households’ annual income using an endogenous switching regression approach, an increasingly popular method of tackling the selection bias issue in impact analyses. Using a large survey of rural households in eastern India, we find that access to credit is strongly associated with rural households’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Additionally, access to credit increases rural households’ economic well-being; nonborrower rural households would benefit the most from access to credit. Access to credit affects recipients heterogeneously, implying that credit policies should be adaptable to different rural household groups.

April, 2011

By: Mishra, Ashok K.; Chang, Hung-Hao
This study examines factors affecting tax-deferred retirement savings among farm households. A double-hurdle model is estimated using 2003 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) farm-level national data. Results indicate that demographic factors, total household income, off-farm work, and risk preference play important roles in retirement savings plan participation. Retirement savings increase with household size, intensity of off-farm work by farm operator and spouse, and size of farming operation. We find that the amount of retirement savings decreases with operator’s age and increases with spouse’s age, and that cash grain and dairy farmers have lower retirement savings.

April, 2010

By: Mishra, Ashok K.; El-Osta, Hisham S.; Shaik, Saleem
Farm transfer or succession by the “next generation” holds a place of central importance in the determination of industry structure and total number of farmers and has profound implications for farm families. The family farm sector relies heavily on intergenerational succession. Succession and retirement are linked and reflective of the life cycles of the farm household and the farm business. A large farm-level data set and a logistic regression model were used to examine the determinants of farm succession decisions in the United States, with special emphasis given to the treatment of endogenous wealth and farm size variables. Results point to the importance of farmer’s age, educational attainment of farm operators, off-farm work by the operator or operator and spouse, expected household wealth, and farm business location on the decision to have succession plans.