By: Penn, Jerrod M.; Hu, Wuyang; Cox, Linda J.
In a choice experiment, when respondents are not given the opportunity to choose none of the options offered in a choice set, the choices can be considered forced. In this study of visits to Hawaiian beaches, we adopt a dual-response choice experiment that allows a comparison between forced and unforced choices while avoiding the possible confounding effect of choice set complexity found in previous research. The results suggest that individual willingness to pay is different in forced and unforced choice sets. Joint tests for parameter equality provide evidence to support the use of unforced choice designs.