1992

December, 1992

By: Babcock, Bruce A.; Blackmer, Alfred M.
The producer value of reducing temporal uncertainty concerning the level of soil nitrate is estimated for corn production in Iowa. The reduction in uncertainty is obtained through use of a late-spring nitrate test. Parametric representations of conditional densities of soil nitrates are used along with an estimated production function to estimate optimal nitrogen fertilizer applications under both uncertainty and certainty for a representative risk-neutral Iowa corn farm. Results indicate that decreasing uncertainty could reduce average fertilizer applications by up to 38% and that producer returns could be increased by up to $22.08/acre.

December, 1992

By: Loehman, Edna T.; Nelson, Carl H.
For production risk with identified physical causes, the nature of risk, production characteristics, risk preference, and prices determine optimal input use. Here, a two-way classification for pairs of inputs - each input as being risk increasing or decreasing and pairs as being risk substitutes or complements - provides sufficient conditions to determine how risk aversion should affect input use. Unlike the Sandmo price risk averse firm may produce more expected output and use more inputs than a risk neutral firm. Sufficient conditions to determine types for pairs of inputs are also related to properties of the production function.

December, 1992

This section includes: Editor's Report for 1992-93; Reviewers, July 1992-June 1993; WAEA 1992 Award Winners; Past Presidents, Western Agricultural Economics Association 1927-93; Past Editors, Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1977-91; Guidelines for Submitting Manuscripts; Membership Information; Back Cover

December, 1992

By: Kesavan, T.; Aradhyula, Satheesh V.; Johnson, Stanley R.
This study uses an error correction model (ECM) to investigate dynamics in farm-retail price relationships. The ECM is a more general method of incorporating dynamics and the long-run, steady-state relationships between farm and retail prices than has been used to data. Monthly data for beef and pork are used to test the time-series properties for the ECM specification. The model is extended to study price volatility through the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) process. Accommodation of the GARCH process provides a useful way of analyzing both mean and variance effects of policy or market structure changes.

December, 1992

By: Moschini, GianCarlo; Vissa, Anuradha
We present an inverse demand that can be estimated in a linear form. The model is derived from a specification of the distance function which is parametrically similar to the cost function underlying the Almost Ideal Demand System. Simulation results suggest that this linear inverse demand system has good approximation properties.

July, 1992

By: Tobey, James A.; Reilly, John M.; Kane, Sally
This paper challenges the hypothesis that negative yield effects in key temperate grain producing regions of the world resulting from global climate change would have a serious impact on world food production. Model results demonstrate that even with concurrent productivity losses in the major grain producing regions of the world, global warming will not seriously disrupt world agricultural markets. Country/regional crop yield changes induce interregional adjustments in production and consumption that serve to buffer the severity of climate change impacts on world agriculture and result in relatively modest impacts on world agricultural prices and domestic economies.

July, 1992

By: Seale, James L., Jr.; Sparks, Amy L.; Buxton, Boyd M.
A Rotterdam import allocation model is used to fit import data for fresh apples in four importing markets important to U.S. apple exporters. Nested tests rejected homotheticity but could not reject homogeneity, symmetry, or separability among import suppliers. A Monte Carlo test rejected first-order autocorrelation in each market. Expenditure and price elasticities are calculated and reported.

July, 1992

By: Ruppel, Fred J.; Fuller, Stephen W.
Laboratory experimentation was used to assess the impacts of information disclosure in imperfect markets. A dual oligopoly market structure was designed with contract information disclosed to subjects under three treatments: no, partial, and full disclosure. Regression analysis revealed some increase in selling price with full information disclosure, but no discernable effects on negotiated prices with partial disclosure. Alternative specifications showed large traders earning significantly lower profits, and information on large traders significantly beneficial to both buyers and sellers. Probit analysis of information selection determinants revealed no significant economic content in trader requests for information under partial disclosure.

July, 1992

By: Goodwin, Barry K.
A conceptual model of grocery coupon usage is developed and maximum likelihood estimates of a Tobit model are used to assess the influence of several economic and demographic variables on consumers' use of grocery coupons. Specific factors considered include income, age, household size, race, education, shopping practices, and size and composition of grocery transactions. The analysis includes a combination of scanner and survey data collected from 1,047 consumers. Results confirm strong effects for household size, race, shopping practices, and size and composition of grocery transactions.