Large-scale brush-control programs are being proposed in Texas to increase off-site water yields. Biophysical and economic simulation models are combined to estimate the effects of brush control on representative ranches in four ecological regions of the Edwards Plateau area of Texas. Net present values of representative ranches in three of four regions decrease with brush control. Cost shares necessary for ranches from the three regions to break even range from 7% to 31% of total brush-control costs. Any large-scale brush-control program will therefore require a substantial investment by the state of Texas.