Water scarcity is becoming more acute, necessitating better understanding of farmer adoption of improved irrigation technologies. Using data from the national 2013 Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey, this study employs a multilevel modeling approach to analyze irrigation decisions. The variation in pressure irrigation adoption is mainly accounted for by state-level factors, while adoption of scientific scheduling practices is more associated with farm-level factors. Adoption increases with larger acreage, groundwater use, information sources other than neighbors, and recent higher temperatures. Adoption is negatively associated with on-farm surface water and barriers related to increased costs, management time, and time horizon.