REGULATION OF NITROGEN POLLUTION: TAXES VERSUS QUOTAS
This paper investigates the effects of first-best policies to regulate nitrogen application. Some nitrogen fertilizer is applied ex ante before a random rainfall, but sidedressed nitrogen may be applied ex post. First-best policy is a tax or a quota on ex ante application, because sidedressed nitrogen is not leached. Since a risk-averse farmer uses more nitrogen ex ante than a risk-neutral farmer, a higher tax must be imposed on the former. Action equivalent first-best taxes and quotas are also welfare equivalent. An empirical model for wheat in Israel was used to demonstrate the analytical findings.
Choi, E. Kwan; Feinerman, Eli, REGULATION OF NITROGEN POLLUTION: TAXES VERSUS QUOTAS, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Volume 20, Issue 1, July 1995, Pages 122–143
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