In 2007 and 2008, international prices of rice and other grains sharply increased, raising fears that poor households in developing countries would become poorer. Yet, these fears often ignored that many of these poor households were food producers. This study examines the impact of rising food prices on welfare in Vietnam. Our results show that, overall, higher food prices raised the average Vietnamese household’s welfare. However, higher food prices made most households worse off. Average welfare was found to increase because the average welfare loss of households whose welfare declined (net purchasers) was smaller than the average welfare gain of those whose welfare increased (net sellers).