Lohr, Luanne

By: Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A.
Although organic farm activities seem to demand year-round employees, seasonal workers dominate the organic labor market. We use the elasticity of complementarity to assess input substitutability and predict adjustments. Farm size and farm workers are complementary inputs. Incentives that encourage farmers to expand employment of year-round and seasonal workers raise the marginal product and rates of return to organic acreage in relative wage payments. A commitment to local sales reduces organic farm incomes. A shift to local sales leads to decreased use of seasonal workers but at higher wages, with smaller adjustments in the wages of year-round workers.
By: Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A.
Responses from a national survey of U.S. organic farmers indicated dissatisfaction with the extension service. An ordered probit model was used to identify the factors influencing effectiveness ratings of extension advisors by farmers. Study findings show that part-time, higher income organic farmers who used a variety of highly rated private-sector information sources rated extension providers as more effective. Farmers in the Northeast and West regions rated extension usefulness more highly than in other regions. Not accounting for these demographic components in effectiveness ratings may result in under- or overestimation of results of organic-targeted extension programs. Extension agents can improve their usefulness to organic farmers by complementing educational and technical services offered by the private sector, and by facilitating farmer information exchanges as well as presenting relevant research findings as they have traditionally done.
By: Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A.
The impact of supply relationships and certification programs on the organic lettuce market is examined using an integrated partial adjustment and asymmetric supply response model. Costs associated with organic certification, production, and marketing have not restricted producers' abilities to respond to price signals. Organic growers allocate output between certified and noncertified markets in response to changing price premiums. Estimates of short-run supply elasticities indicate that organic lettuce growers are more responsive to price changes than producers of nonorganic lettuce. Long-run elasticity has increased since 1988, a change that coincides with the market entry of larger producers.