Kaiser, Harry M.

By: Zheng, Yuqing; Dong, Diansheng; Burney, Shaheer; Kaiser, Harry M.
Sales taxes on either grocery food or restaurant food exist in almost every U.S. county. By combining county-level sales tax data with the USDA’s recent national household food acquisition and purchase survey, we examine how a food sales tax affects consumers’ expenditures on grocery and restaurant food.We find that a grocery tax reduces consumers’ grocery food expenditures and increases restaurant food expenditure and a restaurant food sales tax increases consumers’ grocery food expenditures. We also find no differential impacts from food sales taxes based on consumers’ income or participation status in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
By: Liaukonyte, Jura; Streletskaya, Nadia A.; Kaiser, Harry M.
Consumer preferences for labeled products are often assumed to be exogenous to the presence of labels. However, the label itself (and not the information on the label) can be interpreted as a noisy warning signal. We measure the impact of “contains” labels and additional information about the labeled ingredients, treating preferences for labeled characteristics as endogenous. We find that for organic-food shoppers, the “contains” label absent additional information serves as a noisy warning signal leading them to overestimate the riskiness of consuming the product. Providing additional information mitigates the large negative signaling effect of the label.
By: Schmit, Todd M.; Dong, Diansheng; Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.
A two-step model with sample selection is applied to panel data of U.S. households to estimate at-home demand for fluid milk and cheese, incorporating advertising expenditures. The model consistently accounts for sample-selection bias, unobserved household heterogeneity, and temporal correlation. Generic advertising programs for fluid milk and cheese were effective at increasing conditional purchase quantities, with very little effect on the probability of purchase. In contrast to aggregate studies, the long-run generic advertising elasticities for cheese were larger than for those of fluid milk. Advertising response varied considerably across sub-product classes, while branded advertising expenditures were largely insignificant.
By: Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.
This study presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the distribution of generic advertising benefits across individual producers. We develop a closed-economy partial equilibrium model that allows for the presence of producer heterogeneity in supply response. Analytical results indicate that producers having less elastic supply response capture more benefits per dollar expended than producers with more elastic supply response. The extent of unequal distribution depends on parameters characterizing industries. The inequality may not be a significant problem for some industries, especially where the firm-level supply elasticities are not substantially different among producers, but it may be an important issue when industries have substantial differences in firm-level supply elasticities and firm sizes, and experience large demand shifts due to advertising programs
By: Pritchett, James G.; Liu, Donald J.; Kaiser, Harry M.
The largest portion of dairy and milk checkoff funds is spent on generic fluid milk advertising. These funds are distributed among four distinct media outlets-television, radio, print, and outdoor. Spending too little on one media outlet or too much on another constitutes a missed opportunity to garner higher returns. Using 1984-93 data, this study compares historical advertising expenditures in each media outlet to the advertising expenditure decision of an optimal control model. Results show profits would have increased if funds had been reallocated from television to radio, print, and outdoor media outlets.
By: Reberte, J. Carlos; Kaiser, Harry M.; Lenz, John E.; Forker, Olan D.
This article examines two major generic fluid milk advertising campaigns in New York City during the 1986-92 period. Estimates from a time-varying parameter model show that the evolution of the impact of generic advertising on fluid milk sales over each campaign followed a bell-shaped pattern. Results also show that the first campaign was effective for twice as long as the second campaign and that it has a higher peak and higher average advertising elasticity. These findings may reflect long-term generic milk advertising wearout in the New York City market.
By: Liu, Donald J.; Sun, Chin-Hwa; Kaiser, Harry M.
The degree of market power exercised by fluid and manufactured processors in the U.S. dairy industry is estimated. Appelbaum's quantity-setting conjectural variation approach is cast into a switching regime framework to account for the two market regimes created by the existence of the dairy price support program: (a) government supported regime (market price is at the support price) and (b) market equilibrium regime (market price is above the support price). The model is also used to test whether government price intervention has a pro-competitive to anti-competitive influence on market conduct.